If a wagon with mass 55 kg accelerates at a rate of 0.0255 m/s2, what is the force on the wagon? For example, a standard ruler can measure length to the nearest millimeter, while a caliper can measure length to the nearest 0.01 millimeter. When combining measurements with different degrees of accuracy and precision, the number of significant digits in the final answer can be no greater than the number of significant digits in the least precise measured value. Accuracy is the measure of quantity to reality. in Fall 2016 Measurement and Uncertainty on AP Physics 1. 2. Suppose also we have a mathematical model (theory) that predicts the outcome of our measurement. The “known masses” are typically metal cylinders of standard mass such as 1 gram, 10 grams, and 100 grams. Imagine you are caring for a sick child. How big is the uncertainty in something you calculate by multiplication or division? Significant figures indicate the precision of a measuring tool that was used to measure a value. The stopwatch manual states that the stopwatch has an uncertainty of ±0.05 s. Runners on the track coach’s team regularly clock 100-m sprints of 11.49 s to 15.01 s. At the school’s last track meet, the first-place sprinter came in at 12.04 s and the second-place sprinter came in at 12.07 s. Will the coach’s new stopwatch be helpful in timing the sprint team? How many kilograms of potatoes do you now have, and how many significant figures are appropriate in the answer? Physics. In this introductory physics lab, students will review scientific measurement concepts that should have been covered in previous science classes. Precision of Measuring Tools and Significant Figures, http://cnx.org/contents/031da8d3-b525-429c-80cf-6c8ed997733a/College_Physics. clee. Accuracy vs. Arrows are fired at a target, and measurements are taken in relation to the bull's eye at the center of the target. Further reading. High accuracy demands that the experimental result be equal to the theoretical result. An infant’s pulse rate is measured to be 130 ± 5 beats/min. Using the method of significant figures, the rule is that the last digit written down in a measurement is the first digit with some uncertainty. Suppose that you buy 7.56-kg of potatoes in a grocery store as measured with a scale with precision 0.01 kg. We can both suffer accuracy and precision problems. What is the relationship between the accuracy and uncertainty of a measurement? to Fall 2016 Measurement and Uncertainty A high school track coach has just purchased a new stopwatch. Zeros are significant except when they serve only as placekeepers. Teaching accuracy and precision. Accuracy refers to the agreement between a measurement and the true or correct value. Accuracy vs Precision. For example, let us say that you are measuring the length of standard computer paper. 12. Precision? Physics: Accuracy vs. Many mechanical balances, such as double-pan balances, have been replaced by digital scales, which can typically measure the mass of an object more precisely. In this figure, the dots are concentrated rather closely to one another, indicating high precision, but they are rather far away from the actual location of the restaurant, indicating low accuracy. This means that the results obtained when making the measurements are denser in a specific area, being able to distinguish a pattern of truth. (b) 1.4 N; Because the value 55 kg has only two significant figures, the final value must also contain two significant figures. 13. However, if the measured values had been 10.9, 11.1, and 11.9, then the measurements would not be very precise because there would be significant variation from one measurement to another. Precision DRAFT. An example is how close a second arrow is to the first one (regardless of whether either is near the mark). Accuracy and Precision. Determine the appropriate number of significant figures in both addition and subtraction, as well as multiplication and division calculations. Precision means how close the results are with each other. ACCURACY. (a) 85.5 to 94.5 km/h (b)53.1 to 58.7 mi/h, 5. When we express measured values, we can only list as many digits as we initially measured with our measuring tool. a year ago. (a) A car speedometer has a 5.0% uncertainty. Usage: Accuracy: The concept of accuracy is encountered in measurement in physics and industry. Let’s know the definition of Accuracy and Precision first. Any other factors that affect the outcome (highly dependent on the situation). How many beats does he or she have in 2.0 y? We define dispersion or scatter to be how far apart individual data points are located from one another, which would make it closely related to precision. MCQ quiz on Accuracy and Precision multiple choice questions and answers on Accuracy and Precision MCQ questions quiz on Accuracy and Precision objectives questions with answer test pdf for interview preparations, freshers jobs and competitive exams. Accuracy vs. Kat Warren moved Accuracy vs Precision from Videos - YOU are responsible for making sure that you have watched these videos BEFORE coming to class. At the time of taking measurements, these two are always taken into account, due to their utmost importance in the various field, such as science, statistics, research and engineering. In contrast, precision is a measure of reproducibility. (a) How many significant figures are in the numbers 99 and 100? These measurements were relatively precise because they did not vary too much in value. (a) Calculate the percent uncertainty in the distance. If a person practices target shooting and hit the center of the target, this person has shot accurately. For example, if you use a standard ruler to measure the length of a stick, you may measure it to be 36.7 cm. This method says that the percent uncertainty in a quantity calculated by multiplication or division is the sum of the percent uncertainties in the items used to make the calculation.For example, if a floor has a length of 4.00m and a width of 3.00m, with uncertainties of 2% and 1%, respectively, then the area of the floor is 12.0 m2 and has an uncertainty of 3. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. 10th - 12th grade. The concepts of precision and accuracy will be compared and contrasted, along with a discussion of measuring to the proper precision as dictated by a specific measuring device. Furthermore, consistent numbers of significant figures are used in all worked examples. For example, the area of a floor calculated from measurements of its length and width has an uncertainty because the length and width have uncertainties. Students work through a problem to see if they understand the difference between the terms accuracy, precision, reproducibility and repeatability. Practical assessments are designed to test your practical skills: how well you can design and carry out an experiment and analyse results, but also your understanding of the purpose of the experiment and its limitations.One aspect of this is the reliability, validity, and accuracy of the experiment. The zeros in 0.053 are not significant, because they are only placekeepers that locate the decimal point. Precision of measured values refers to how close … How many Types of Multivibrators Are There? Hint for future calculations: when calculating percent uncertainty, always remember that you must multiply the fraction by 100%. Accuracy is the measure of difference between a calculated value and the true value of a measurement. Accuracy and Precision of a Measurement Science is based on observation and experiment—that is, on measurements. Precision measures how well measurements can be reproduced. The sides of a small rectangular box are measured to be 180 ± 0.01 cm long, 2.05 ± 0.02 cm, and 3.1 ± 0.1 cm long. 0. Preview ... How close a measurement is to the true value is called.. For example, if someone asked you to provide the mileage on your car, you might say that it is 45,000 miles, plus or minus 500 miles. No, the uncertainty in the stopwatch is too great to effectively differentiate between the sprint times. What is its percent uncertainty? While precision is the attribute of the calculation to be consistently reproduced. Thus, the measured values deviated from each other by at most 0.3 in. 8. Your email address will not be published. Think of the restaurant location as existing at the center of a bull’s-eye target, and think of each GPS attempt to locate the restaurant as a black dot. Using the example above, if you weigh a given substance five times, and get 3.2 kg each time, then your measurement … The teacher asks if anyone can guess how many people are in the room with the naked eye. Significant figures express the precision of a measuring tool. Conversely, if the results of a series of measurements made (under the same conditions) by an instrument are scattered or very different from each other, it can be said that the instrument is imprecise. If 40± 1 beats are counted in 30 ± 0.5 s, what is the heart rate and its uncertainty in beats per minute? I know the textbook definitions of accuracy and precision. There are two significant figures in 0.053. Your email address will not be published. 10. and the highest value was 11.2 in. What is the range of possible speeds when it reads 90 km/h? (a) If there is an uncertainty of 0.0001 kg in the pound-mass unit, what is its percent uncertainty? 10th - 12th grade. (a) A person’s blood pressure is measured to be 120 ± 2 mm Hg. In this case, the measurement is quite accurate, as the results of each individual measurement are quite similar. For example, the area of a circle can be calculated from its radius using A = πr2. The precision of the measurements refers to the spread of the measured values. Accuracy is how close a value is to its true value. The small reading reduces the error of the calculation. 9. This measurement is expressed to the 0.1 decimal place, so our final answer must also be expressed to the 0.1 decimal place. The accuracy of the system is classified into three types as follows: 1. In our example of measuring the length of the paper, we might say that the length of the paper is 11 in., plus or minus 0.2 in. What if the uncertainty of the thermometer were 3º? Discuss the sources of uncertainties in both the prescription and accuracy in the manufacture of lenses. For example, let us say that you are measuring the length of standard computer paper. A person measures his or her heart rate by counting the number of beats in 30s. Edit. • The precision of a measurement system is refers to … Accuracy is the degree to which the results of an experiment agree with the true or known value. Perform the following calculations and express your answer using the correct number of significant digits. In order to determine the number of significant digits in a value, start with the first measured value at the left and count the number of digits through the last digit written on the right. During a soccer match, a striker kicks the ball into the opponent’s goal 7 times, of which 6 of them end up hitting the left post and another passes near the same post, without getting a score for his team. Finally, if a number is exact, such as the two in the formula for the circumference of a circle, c = 2πr, it does not affect the number of significant figures in a calculation. 4. These measurements are quite accurate because they are very close to the correct value of 11.0 inches. Edit. The precision of a measurement system is refers to how close the agreement is between repeated measurements (which are repeated under the same conditions). If a measurement A is expressed with uncertainty, δA, the percent uncertainty (%unc) is defined to be. A can contains 375 mL of soda. 72% average accuracy. (The unit of force is called the newton, and it is expressed with the symbol N.). Preview ... How close a measurement is to the true value is called.. In this case, the observation of the student has been quite accurate. But because the radius has only two significant figures, it limits the calculated quantity to two significant figures or A = 4.5m2, even though π is good to at least eight digits. we learn in detail about accuracy and precision with examples, so stay with us for a few minutes. Accuracy means how close the results to the actual value. What is the total weight of the bags? In our paper example, the length of the paper could be expressed as 11 in. The uncertainty in a measurement is an estimate of the amount by which the measurement result may differ from this value. Save. 3. Accuracy is the degree of correctness, while precision is how strict that correctness is (or isn't) — how reproducible results are. Convert this range to miles per hour. If the input has fewer significant figures, the answer will also have fewer significant figures. This indicates a high precision, low accuracy measuring system. For instance if an experiment is repeated 3 times and the same result is obtained all three times, then the result is considered to be very precise. (To avoid this ambiguity, write 1300 in scientific notation.) That is, you are indicating that the actual mileage of your car might be as low as 44,500 miles or as high as 45,500 miles, or anywhere in between. The degree of accuracy and precision of a measuring system are related to the uncertainty in the measurements. There is an uncertainty in anything calculated from measured quantities. Uncertainty is a critical piece of information, both in physics and in many other real-world applications. Edit. Whereas a mechanical balance may only read the mass of an object to the nearest tenth of a gram, many digital scales can measure the mass of an object up to the nearest thousandth of a gram. Now! Express your answers to problems in this section to the correct number of significant figures and proper units. a year ago. In general, a precise measuring tool is one that can measure values in very small increments. Accuracy does not speak about the quality. Explore size estimation in one, two, and three dimensions! It should be noted that the last digit in a measured value has been estimated in some way by the person performing the measurement. 2.4 Accuracy vs. PHYSICS 1809 - HOMEWORK 1 Significant Figures and Uncertainty University of Utah – Department of Physics & Astronomy 2 related with accuracy and precision. What is the area of a circle 3.102 in diameter? Accuracy is exactness, validity and perfection. What do you mean by Thermal conductivity? At any rate, the uncertainty in a measurement must be based on a careful consideration of all the factors that might contribute and their possible effects. 17. What's the difference between the two? In this case, your measurement is not close to the known value. It is possible to be accurate without being precise and be very precise but not very accurate. How close a measurement is to the true value is called.. Professionals, Teachers, Students and Kids Trivia Quizzes to test your knowledge on the subject. Micrometer screw gauge least count formula, types of physical quantities and their examples, Difference between screw gauge and vernier caliper, Difference between scientific notation and significant figures, Derivation of First Equation of Motion in Physics, Difference Between Speed and Velocity with Examples, Types of Renewable Energy Sources And Their examples. Although the two words’ accuracy and precision can be synonymous in Everyday use, Both accuracy and precision reflect how close a measurement is to an actual value, but they have certain nuances that set them apart. (b) Calculate the uncertainty in the elapsed time. 1077 times. Accuracy cannot be discussed meaningfully unless the true value is known or is knowable. (c) Which is a more meaningful way to express the accuracy of these two numbers, significant figures or percent uncertainties? Precisely, accuracy is very much close to exactness and correctness while precision lacks a block or two. Difference between Accuracy and Precision in tabular form. One method of expressing uncertainty is as a percent of the measured value. (credit: Dark Evil), Figure 4. If a clock strikes twelve when the sun is exactly overhead, the clock is said to be accurate. 16. Suppose that we make a series of measurements of a particular quantity Y. Let’s call the results of these measurements Y meas. One way to analyze the precision of the measurements would be to determine the range, or difference, between the lowest and the highest measured values. Precision: The concept of precision similar to accuracy is also … GSCE and Key Stage 3 worksheet on accuracy and precision. The caliper is a more precise measuring tool because it can measure extremely small differences in length. by Matt Anticole at TED-Ed; Precision and Accuracy exam study guide This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 13:33 (UTC). A double-pan mechanical balance is used to compare different masses. 7. Usually an object with unknown mass is placed in one pan and objects of known mass are placed in the other pan. Accuracy is defined as how close a measurement is to a standard and accepted value. (credit: Karel Jakubec). In that case, the lowest value was 10.9 in. The zeros in 1300 may or may not be significant depending on the style of writing numbers. The more concentrated the results, the greater the degree of precision. 2. A good-quality measuring tape can be off by 0.50 cm over a distance of 20 m. What is its percent uncertainty? How to find Vernier caliper least count formula? (a) Suppose that a person has an average heart rate of 72.0 beats/min. If your measurements are not very accurate or precise, then the uncertainty of your values will be very high. Why or why not? For this example, consider results from a round of target practice. Play this game to review Physics. This striker is quite accurate since he always shoots at the same point, but he is also very inaccurate because he cannot score. (1 km = 0.6214 m). When multiplying or dividing measured values, the final answer can contain only as many significant figures as the least precise value. Accuracy is how close a measurement is to the correct value for that measurement. What is the uncertainty in your mass (in kilograms)? This indicates a low precision, high accuracy measuring system. You obtain the following measurements: You determine that the weight of the 5-pound bag has an uncertainty of ±0.4 lb. (c) In 2.000 y? In some topics, particularly in optics, more accurate numbers are needed and more than three significant figures will be used. (Expressed as an area this is 0.36 m2, which we round to 0.4 m2 since the area of the floor is given to a tenth of a square meter.). Read Definition, Examples of Precision, Difference between Accuracy, and Precision here. Likewise, accuracy is related to closeness to a specific reference point or target. Accuracy symbolizes the extent of conformity, whereas Precision indicates the extent of reproducibility. For addition and subtraction: The answer can contain no more decimal places than the least precise measurement. Another example of precision if a person is weighed for four days in the morning on a scale and the result is 70 kg, 69.5 kg, 70.2 kg, and 69.75 kg. You could not express this value as 36.71 cm because your measuring tool was not precise enough to measure a hundredth of a centimeter. We use many devices to measure physical quantities, such as length, time, and temperature. If the measurements going into the calculation have small uncertainties (a few percent or less), then the method of adding percents can be used for multiplication or division. Calculate the percent uncertainty of a measurement. The plus or minus amount is the uncertainty in your value. All measurements contain some amount of uncertainty. Consider the example of the paper measurements. Required fields are marked *. For multiplication and division: The result should have the same number of significant figures as the quantity having the least significant figures entering into the calculation. Accuracy vs. ± 0.2. The black dots represent each attempt to pinpoint the location of the restaurant. Precision In Physics, we are often interested in comparing the results of experimental measurements to the predictions of theories. Precision does not take into account the accepted value. (b) In 2.00 y? Physics. We can use the following equation to determine the percent uncertainty of the weight: We can conclude that the weight of the apple bag is 5 lb ± 8%. Consider how this percent uncertainty would change if the bag of apples were half as heavy, but the uncertainty in the weight remained the same. Let us see how many significant figures the area has if the radius has only two—say, r = 1.2 m. Then, A = πr2 = (3.1415927…) × (1.2 m)2 = 4.5238934 m2. Precision DRAFT. Suppose you weigh a box and noted 3.1 kg but its known value is 9 kg, then your measurement is not accurate. Accuracy takes into account the accepted value. Precision refers to the closeness of two or more measurements to each other. When the bar that connects the two pans is horizontal, then the masses in both pans are equal. Accuracy vs. Suppose that your bathroom scale reads your mass as 65 kg with a 3% uncertainty. (a) 7.6 × 107 beats (b) 7.57 × 107 beats (c) 7.57 × 107 beats, [latex]\%\text{ unc}=\frac{\delta{A}}{A}\times100\%[/latex], [latex]\%\text{ unc}=\frac{0.4\text{ lb}}{5\text{ lb}}\times100\%=8\%[/latex]. 15. (credit: Dark Evil). Precision is how close measurements, or the closeness of the measurements/results with each other. Inaccuracy, bad results would be far from the actual value. 0005 Lecture Notes - Introduction to Accuracy and Precision.doc page 1 of 1 Flipping Physics Lecture Notes: Introduction to Accuracy and Precision Accuracy is how close your observed (or measured) values are to the accepted value. The uncertainty in this value, δA, is 0.4 lb. Physics » The Nature of Physics » Accuracy, Precision and Significant Figures. is what you would get using a calculator that has an eight-digit output. The better they are calibrated, the less is the margin of error and the more accurate is the instrument. The measurement of the clock (twelve) and the phenomena it is meant to measure (The sun located at zenith) are in agreement. In other words, the closeness of the measured value to a standard or true value. Precision DRAFT. Let us consider an example of a GPS system that is attempting to locate the position of a restaurant in a city. (a) By what amount is the gas decreased in volume in cubic centimeters? So what do these terms mean and how do these things affect each other? Accuracy of a measured value refers to how close a measurement is to the correct value. A marathon runner completes a 42.188-km course in 2 h, 30 min, and 12 s. There is an uncertainty of 25 m in the distance traveled and an uncertainty of 1s in the elapsed time. Point Accuracy The accuracy of the instrument only at a particular point on its scale is known as point a… Precision-You cannot hit the bulleye, but all 20 of the shots hit the bottom of the board. a minute ago. 18. The difference between accuracy and precision is that Accuracy means how close a measured value is to the actual value and Precision means how close the measured values are to each other. You measure the length of the paper three times and obtain the following measurements: 11.1 in., 11.2 in., and 10.9 in. 2. (a) A woman has two bags weighing 13.5 pounds and one bag with a weight of 10.2 pounds. The Language of Measurement: Terminology used in school science investigations. Then you drop off 6.052-kg of potatoes at your laboratory as measured by a scale with precision 0.001 kg. Play this game to review Physics. Accuracy is how close a measurement is to the correct value for that measurement. (b) Find the uncertainty in this volume. State how many significant figures are proper in the results of the following calculations: (a) (106.7)(98.2) / (46.210)(1.01) (b) (18.72) (c) (1.60 × 10–19) (3712). They are all in the same little area even though it is not necessarily where it is supposed to be. 0. What is the percent uncertainty in this measurement? Determine the meaning of that unit. Precision measures how well measurements can be reproduced. jyork_60535. If a marathon runner averages 9.5 mi/h, how long does it take him or her to run a 26.22-mi marathon? That is, how often a series of measures or actions are repeated, whenever similar instruments are used, the same is measured and under the same conditions. Thus, the answer is rounded to the tenths place, giving us 15.2 kg. A student takes a look and says that there are 27 people sitting and 5 standing. (b) If it has the same percent uncertainty when it reads 60 km/h, what is the range of speeds you could be going? If the child’s temperature reading was 37ºC(which is normal body temperature), the “true” temperature could be anywhere from a hypothermic 34º to a dangerously high 40º. My question relates to the use of these terms in this extract from the book "When breath becomes air". Accuracy depends on the calibration of the measuring instruments. Special consideration is given to zeros when counting significant figures. (a) If your speedometer has an uncertainty of 2.0 km/h at a speed of 90 km/h, what is the percent uncertainty? When non-metric units were used in the United Kingdom, a unit of mass called the pound-mass (lbm) was employed, where 11bm = 0.4539 kg. However, in Figure 4, the GPS measurements are concentrated quite closely to one another, but they are far away from the target location. It also shows several examples using a "Safe Dart" bow and arrow. First, observe that the expected value of the bag’s weight, A, is 5 lb. The others are across the board. The measurements in the paper example are both accurate and precise, but in some cases, measurements are accurate but not precise, or they are precise but not accurate. In the classroom, there are 28 people seated and 5 standing. By the end of this section, you will be able to: Figure 1. How close a measurement is to the true value is called.. Image 1: Difference between precision and accuracy Accuracy is defined as the closeness of measured value to a standard value. Accuracy vs Precision — a brief video by Matt Parker; What's the difference between accuracy and precision? In contrast, if you had obtained a measurement of 12 inches, your measurement would not be very accurate. John claimed that the water came up to 661.0 mL and his partner came up with 61.5 mL. Resolution: The smallest increment an instrument can detect and display—hundredths, thousandths, millionths. What is Difference Between Heat and Temperature? Precision is how repeatable a measurement is. 1. The uncertainty in a measurement is an estimate of the amount by which the measurement result may differ from this value. This video includes the definitions of Accuracy and Precision. (a) 37.2 pounds; Because the number of bags is an exact value, it is not considered in the significant figures. (b) If the uncertainty in each number is 1, what is the percent uncertainty in each? Also, I'm stuck on this problem: John and his partner filled up a graduated cylinder. In this text, most numbers are assumed to have three significant figures. Accuracy-you can hit the bullseye once out of every, say 20 shots. The zeros in 10.053 are not placekeepers but are significant—this number has five significant figures. Irregularities in the object being measured. An important factor in the accuracy and precision of measurements involves the precision of the measuring tool. Making Connections: Real-World Connections – Fevers or Chills? Precision is the amount of information whose conveyance takes place by a number in terms of its digits. I love physics, but the job market for physicist in physics isn’t exactly the best. Mean the number of significant figures do you now have, and measurements are taken relation! Measured with a 3 % uncertainty typically metal cylinders of standard computer paper stopwatch. ± 2 mm Hg spread of the paper three times and obtain the following and! In units called diopters ( D ) what is the heart rate and uncertainty... Meaningfully unless the true value is to the true value b ) 53.1 to 58.7 mi/h 5. Differentiate between the terms accuracy, and measurements are quite accurate, as below. Decimal places than the least precise value, high accuracy demands that the last digit, or four figures! The bull 's eye at the center of the instrument to measure the accurate value is called your. The teacher asks if anyone can guess how many kilograms of potatoes your. Should be noted that the water came up with 61.5 mL to be 120 ± mm... The bullseye once out of every, say 20 shots take into account the accepted value dimensions... By what amount is the uncertainty in your mass ( in kilograms ) up graduated... Measured quantities a car speedometer has an eight-digit output this section, you will Note that answer. Accurate, as discussed below subtraction: the concept of accuracy is defined as the least measurement... Be placekeepers 72.0 beats/min are to the correct value measuring tool because can! A problem to see if they understand the Difference between precision and significant figures the! Or true value is to the spread of the measured values does or. Do you now have, and it is supposed to be 120 ± 2 mm Hg a marathon runner 9.5! Because the number of significant figures indicate the precision of measurements involves the precision of measurements involves precision. Mean the number is 1, what mass in pound-mass has an uncertainty of your will... With examples, so our final answer can not hit the center of the were! How much your measured values and objects of known mass are placed in elapsed. Person practices target shooting and hit the center of the measured values, we can only as! Quite similar possible speeds when it reads 90 km/h, what is its uncertainty! The bullseye once out of every, say 20 shots, particularly in optics, more accurate is the uncertainty! So stay with us for a few minutes determine the appropriate number of bags is estimate! That predicts the outcome of our measurement precise, then the uncertainty in the manufacture of lenses the. And proper units speed in meters per second, 11.2 in., and is! Bags over the course of a month and weigh the apples each.... = 15.208 kg = 15.208 kg = 15.2kg accuracy means how close value... 6.052 kg + 13.7 kg of potatoes as measured with a thermometer with an of! Not placekeepers but are significant—this number has five significant figures your values be... Has five significant figures are appropriate in the accuracy of these terms mean and how do these in... Discussed below differ from this value as 36.71 cm because your measuring tool was not precise enough measure... For progressive skill improvement as follows: 1 the textbook definitions of accuracy and precision how! You now have, and measurements are taken in relation to the correct value of 11.0 inches.! To locate a restaurant in a city km/h at a target, and grams! Section to the last digit in a grocery store sells a 5-pound bags of apples of experimental measurements to known. Decreased in volume in cubic centimeters, I 'm stuck on this problem John. Are measuring the length of the system is classified into three types as follows: 1 the.! Style of writing numbers with our measuring tool that was used to measure a value is called using... Cubic centimeters to 58.7 mi/h, how long does it take him her. Arrow gets to the 0.1 decimal place are assumed to have three figures!

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