He recently published a study on the rise of armed religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa. Such conflicts can arise in majority Muslim societies, such as Mali, Somalia or Northern Nigeria. Religious and ethnic conflicts are likely to escalate as two other northern states, Niger and Sokoto, have bills to enforce sharia law expected to take effect in May this year. (function($) {window.fnames = new Array(); window.ftypes = new Array();fnames[0]='EMAIL';ftypes[0]='email';fnames[1]='FNAME';ftypes[1]='text';fnames[2]='LNAME';ftypes[2]='text';}(jQuery));var $mcj = jQuery.noConflict(true); You have entered an incorrect email address! All religions have their accepted dogma, or articles of belief, that followers must accept without question. However in Nigeria, religious conflict does not only carry religious motive but also politically inclined such that according to Marshall, recently, the president of Nigeria was forceful in saying the Nigerian conflict has nothing to do intrinsically with religion, that is used as an excuse by politicians’ 10. advance of religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa? DW: In your study on the subject of religious conflicts in Africa, you claim eight out of ten active armed conflicts have a religious dimension. Basically, one must distinguish between two types of religious conflicts. Political scientist Professor Matthias Basedau conducts research on peace and security at the GIGA Institute of Global and Area Studies in Hamburg. Boundaries between major religions that cross countries can be powerful sources of conflict, with serious implications for political cohesion and stability. The parties involved may differ on the question of what role religion should play in the state. However, religion is only one aspect of these conflicts – they can also be ethnic conflicts, or conflicts over power or resources. We do not know everything yet, but some measures are likely to take hold. On the other hand, thanks to globalization, governments can also improve their networks to implement de-radicalization measures. You can find more information in our data protection declaration. On the religious side, one can carry out de-radicalization measures, thus strengthening peaceful interpretations of faith. Researcher Matthias Basedau says weak African states are a major cause. (26.10.2016). What counter-measures would have to be taken to stop the advance of religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa? This is different from theological conflicts which are mostly about religious ideas. They have supported rebels in Mali and there are indications that they are also doing it in Nigeria and Somalia. Religion and conflict resolution is an area of significant importance. © Yerepouni News (Managed by Alienative.net). What role has globalization and social media played in increasing religious conflicts? Religion and Violence 1. Most Africans are Christians, but is Christianity an African religion? The counter-measures must be based on a careful analysis of the causes. Please make sure to include your name and your country. At the same time, scripture and dogma are often vague and open to interpretation. This book examines the ambiguous role that Christianity played in South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). The contribution that religion can make to peacemaking--as the flip side of religious conflict--is only beginning to be explored and explicated. Today, Africa is laced with some of the most obstinate conflicts, most of them constructed from differences in religious and ethnic identities. Religious and ethnic nationalism has led to conflicts about control of state power, unequal allocation of resources, citizenship issues, state collapse, economic decline and ethno-religious clashes. There is no conflict based purely on religion. © 2020 Deutsche Welle | It is about good governance and security. Several measures will be required but the good news is that some of these are already in place. In a multi-ethnic and religiously diverse society like Nigeria, relationships between people may be characterized by lack of cordiality, mutual suspicion and fear as it is the case among the ethnic and religious groups in Nigeria. This can overlap with ethnic identities, and it is clear that heterogeneous societies are more vulnerable to triggering conflicts along these lines. For decades, religious leaders serve as a means of conflict prevention, mediation, and peacebuilding in East Africa. In inter-religious conflicts, the conflict parties differ in their religious affiliation – for example, Christians and Muslims. 3. Researcher Matthias Basedau says weak African states are a major cause. In this session, participants will engage with the German Ambassador to Tanzania, Ambassador Regine Hess, who presides over the long-standing and close relations between Germany and the nations of East Africa. Why do radical groups from North Africa and the Middle East have an interest in stirring up these conflicts? Causes of Religious conflicts in Kenya Religious conflict in Kenya is in most cases linked to general intercommunal conflict and follows almost synonymous pattern as that of inter-ethnic conflict. The Igbo massacre of 1966 in the North that followed the counter-coup of the same year had as a dual cause the Igbo officers' coup and pre-existing (sectarian) … Firstly, we need to be aware that there are both religious and non-religious causes that must be dealt with at the same time. advance of religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa. Conflicts in the region are often viewed as either 'tribal' or 'Muslim-Christian', seemingly rooted in … 7.6: Religious Conflict in North Africa and Southwest Asia. It encompasses colonial wars, wars of independence, secessionist and separatist conflicts, major episodes of national violence (riots, massacres, etc. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. «Նոյյան Տապան»-ի հյուրն է գրող, հրապարակախոս, գործարար Կիրակոս Գույումճեանը. This is a list of conflicts in Africa arranged by country, both on the continent and associated islands, including wars between African nations, civil wars, and wars involving non-African nations that took place within Africa. The Government Restrictions Index measures government laws, policies and actions that restrict religious beliefs and practices. Contact Religious conflict in Nigeria goes as far back as 1953, and in the case of the town of Tafawa Balewa, to 1948. The many other dimensions and impacts of religion tend to be downplayed or even neglected entirely. You also mentioned in your study that countries with a heterogeneous population and religious communities are particularly susceptible to religious conflicts. In Nigeria the Boko Haram Islamists also frequently attack Muslims. But of course, not all Muslims in these countries are radical Islamists. In the popular mind, to discuss religion in the context of international affairs automatically raises the specter of religious-based conflict. Active radical groups have a more direct influence in North Africa, such as Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), or offshoots of the so-called Islamic State. RELIGION AND CONFLICT IN AFRICA WITH A SPECIAL FOCUS ON EAST AFRICA Bjørn Møller DIIS REPORT DIIS REPORT 2006:6 DANISH INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDIES. There is no conflict based purely on religion. For example, radical Muslim groups demand the introduction of Sharia law. The interview was conducted by Gwendolin Hilse. In his article, ‘Conflict and Peace in West Africa,’ Cybil Obi identifies that: The roots of conflict in West Africa are much deeper and complex, and are embedded in the interplay of historical factors, socio-economic crisis, legacies of authoritarianism and the politics of exclusion, international forces, and local struggles . (20.03.2016), A militant group linked to the self-proclaimed "Islamic State" (IS) has taken control of a small port in the Horn of Africa. Since the awakening of religion, wars have been fought in the name of different gods and goddesses. It has two objectives: to analyse the role Christianity played in the TRC and to highlight certain consequences that may be instructive to future international conflict resolution processes. They have an interest in creating branches in other countries. (14.12.2016), The Kenyan military has killed some 34 militants belonging to the extremist al-Shabab group in two separate operations. We do not know everything yet, but some measures are likely to take hold. How do you explain this phenomenon? What counter-measures would have to be taken to stop the advance of religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa? Prior to … It is about good governance and security. ISIS represents a fundamentalist view of Islam, known as Islamism. He recently published a study on the rise of armed religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa. Other Middle Eastern states are more likely to have an indirect influence. The group refuses to register as a religious movement. We will sample your texts in our show. On the religious side, one can carry out de-radicalization measures, thus strengthening peaceful interpretations of faith. Send us a text at +49-160-9575 9510. International SMS charges apply. A study by a German academic says religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa have been on the rise for decades. As a general rule, the process of conflict outbreak involves three … They include the Protestants, Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Independent and non-affiliated Christians. Firstly, we need to be aware that there are both religious and non-religious causes that must be dealt with at the same time. In other words, governments and states must offer their citizens better prospects. Got an opinion about the stories making headlines? Although religion is a major factor in the Sudanese conflicts, it is not the only one. But it is not entirely clear how this influence is spreading or how strong it is. In Nigeria the Boko Haram Islamists also frequently attack Muslims. But of course, not all Muslims in these countries are radical Islamists. Christianity was first introduced to the continent by the white man during colonisation. The organization is a rival to the al-Shabab terror group, which is linked with al-Qaida. The interview was conducted by Gwendolin Hilse, In northwestern Nigeria, a lethal conflict between the authorities and the outlawed Islamist group IMN continues one year after hundreds were killed in clashes. The government has been unable to destroy Boko Haram or end … Countries like Saudi Arabia or Qatar are spreading Wahhabism, or similar variants, which can indirectly create a radical ideology that leads to violence. Why do radical groups from North Africa and the Middle East have an interest in stirring up these conflicts? On July 9, 2011, South Sudan became an independent nation. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. A study by a German academic says religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa have been on the rise for decades. In inter-religious conflicts, the conflict parties differ in their religious affiliation - for example, Christians and Muslims. Sub-Saharan Africa traditionally was home to a rather moderate form of Islam, for example, Sufism. But we are also aware of examples of Christian rebel groups in sub-Saharan Africa who have theological demands. The counter-measures must be based on a careful analysis of the causes. 4.3.2 Religious conflict during the 1980’s According to Falola, ‘religious violence became one of the most serious crises of the 1980’s and beyond.’75 Falola argues that the religious violence during the 1980’s in Nigeria was a result of internal economic and political decay.76 He further argues that religious tension was building up from the 1970’s as a result of the role that religion played in politics. On the other hand, thanks to globalization, governments can also improve their networks to implement de-radicalization measures. Ethiopia was the first countryto adopt Christianity as a doctrine. The rise of ISIS is representative of many key issues of geography in this region: the intersection of religious values, political instability, and control of territory and resources. As religious armed conflicts in Africa and elsewhere stem from a mix of causes, responses must include a variety of measures. All Christians are listed in one category regardless of their denominations. Somalia is one of the most unstable countries in Africa; it is also one of the most religiously homogenous countries on the continent. Religion is the spark for disputes throughout the world, but especially in Africa. In other words, governments and states must offer their citizens better prospects. Why are countries in sub-Saharan Africa so vulnerable to this kind of conflict? Religious Wars. Although not necessarily so, there are some aspects of religion that make it susceptible to being a latent source of conflict. Several measures will be required but the good news is that some of these are already in place. The region is generally vulnerable to conflicts because many states in sub-Saharan Africa are often weak. You also mentioned in your study that countries with a heterogeneous population and religious communities are particularly susceptible to religious conflicts. This can overlap with ethnic identities, and it is clear that heterogeneous societies are more vulnerable to triggering conflicts along these lines. In the Islamic history, conflict between religion and politics settled after the Abbasid revolution (750.A.D.) This book explains why conflicts in Africa are sometimes ethnic and sometimes religious, and why a conflict might change from ethnic to religious even as the opponents remain fixed. It also has to do with the fact that religious conflicts spill over from North Africa and the Middle East; either directly from Libya or Algeria or indirectly through the spread of more radical versions of Islam. Globalization – the simplified flow of information, goods and finances – promotes these kinds of issues, not only in Africa, but also elsewhere. The recent attacks are nothing new as religious (and ethnic) conflicts have haunted the country for several years, reaching a peak at the end of 2012. The region is generally vulnerable to conflicts because many states in sub-Saharan Africa are often weak. African governments must do most of the work with the support of other countries. The raids took place in neighboring Somalia, where the government is fighting the Islamists. Conflict can be defined as a clash or disagreement often violent between opposing groups or individuals. In Burundi and Nigeria for example, Germany supports pilot projects through the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) as well as the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ). The parties involved may differ on the question of what role religion should play in the state. It can also be said to be an incompatibility, as of two things that cannot be simultaneously fulfilled. Conflict is thus as old as humanity. They have an interest in creating branches in other countries. How do you explain this phenomenon? CONFLICTS AND CAUSES OF CONFLICTS IN AFRICA. Matthias Basedau: Conflicts that have a religious dimension are becoming more common worldwide and sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. Legal notice | “Conflict” is defined as the underlying issue in dispute between or among parties and “conflict resolution” as the elimination of causes of the underlying conflict. Matthias Basedau: Conflicts that have a religious dimension are becoming more common worldwide and sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. It is about spreading a radical version of Islam. It is about spreading a radical version of Islam. But we should not expect that this alone will make a quick and sustainable difference. In Burundi and Nigeria for example, Germany supports pilot projects through the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) as well as the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ). First, policies need to address both the religious and non-religious causes. Why are countries in sub-Saharan Africa so vulnerable to this kind of conflict? This is different from theological conflicts which are mostly about religious ideas. | Mobile version. From a non-religious point of view, this is mainly about long-term development. when the Iranians, who made the revolution a success and subsequently assumed position of power and authority in the government administration, formulated the state policy of their liking. Globalization - the simplified flow of information, goods and finances - promotes these kinds of issues, not only in Africa, but also elsewhere. A weak state allows these kinds of groups to be active in the first place – their radical ideology becomes more attractive to people if the state does not provide adequate public services and the politicians are corrupt. Political scientist Professor Matthias Basedau conducts research on peace and security at the GIGA Institute of Global and Area Studies in Hamburg. After all, if it is the word of God, how can one compromise it? Privacy Policy | Nigeria, in view, is a country blessed with vast geographical landmarks, a nation with vast ethnic groups and many … Conflict resolution in African countries Africa as a continent is endowed with enough resources to keep the world moving for years. However, religion is only one aspect of these conflicts - they can also be ethnic conflicts, or conflicts over power or resources. Countries like Saudi Arabia or Qatar are spreading Wahhabism, or similar variants, which can indirectly create a radical ideology that leads to violence. We use cookies to improve our service for you. Միլիոնաւոր ամերիկացիներ պիտի դադրին  գործազրկութեան  նպաստէն օգտուելէ, եթէ մինչեւ  շաբաթ  օր նախագահ Թրամփ  չստորագրէ պսակաւոր ժահրին դէմ պաշտպանութեան   Ներկայացուցիչներու տան քուէարկած   օրինագիծը: Նախագահ  Թրամփ  49  անձերու  ներում  շնորհեց, որոնց մէջ՝   քրէական յանցագորութեամբ բանտարկեալներ: Բրիտանիոյ  եւ  Եւրոպական Միութեան միջեւ Brexit-ի համաձայնութիւնը կը  մօտենայ: Արա Այվազեան-  Սերկէյ  Լաւրով հեռախօսազրոյց: 27 դեկտեմբեր  1346՝   ծնաւ    հայ իմաստասէր  Գրիգոր Տաթեւացին ( վախճանեցաւ՝1409): 27 դեկտեմբեր 1571՝  ծնաւ  գերմանացի աստղագէտ  Եոհան Քեփլըրը (մահացաւ՝  1630): 27 դեկտեմբեր  1822՝  ծնաւ  ֆրանսացի   մանրէաբան  Լուիս  Փասթէորը (մահացաւ՝ 1895): 27 դեկտեմբեր  1901՝ ծնաւ  ծագումով  գերմանացի-ամերիկացի դերասանուհի, երգչուհի  Մարլէն  Տիթրիխը (մահացաւ՝ 1992): 27  դեկտեմբեր  1923՝  մահացաւ ֆրանսացի  ճարտարագէտ  Կիւսթաւ Էյֆէլը (ծնեալ՝ 1832): 27  դեկտեմբեր 1925՝  ծնաւ  ֆրանսացի դերասան  Միշէլ Փիքոլին: 27  դեկտեմբեր  1925՝  մահացաւ  ռուս  բանաստեղծ  Սերկէյ  Եսենինը (ծնեալ՝ 1895): 27 դեկտեմբեր  1940՝   մահացաւ  հայ  հասարակական գործիչ Արշակ  Ջամալեանը (ծնեալ՝ 1882): 27  դեկտեմբեր   1998՝  մահացաւ  հայ  գրող եւ հրապարակախօս Գէորգ Աճեմեանը (ծնեալ՝  1932). It also has to do with the fact that religious conflicts spill over from North Africa and the Middle East; either directly from Libya or Algeria or indirectly through the spread of more radical versions of Islam. Still today most violent conflicts contain religious elements linked up with ethno-national, inter-state, economic, territorial, cultural and other issues. But we should not expect that this alone will make a quick and sustainable difference. Trial for murder of reporter Jan Kuciak begins in Slovakia, Tragedy of Artsakh Or Fear and Shame of Nikol Pashinyan, Global Research on Karabakh conflict, Pashinyan, Soros: Don’t blame the Soviets for war in Karabakh, Azerbaijan Jews know fears of Nagorno-Karabakh ‘Cultural Genocide’ unfounded. If the various facets of weak states increase the risk of conflict… Religious polarization is a real challenge in Nigeria, and it has likely increased. From a non-religious point of view, this is mainly about long-term development. This can lead to inflexibility and intolerance in the face of other beliefs. Among the believers of Christ, ther… A study by a German academic says religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa have been on the rise for decades. In fact, this mutual suspicion and lack of cordiality among the various ethnic components explains why ethnic and religious conflicts have become a permanent feature of Nigeria as a nation as far back as 1980s … A weak state allows these kinds of groups to be active in the first place - their radical ideology becomes more attractive to people if the state does not provide adequate public services and the politicians are corrupt. DW: In your study on the subject of religious conflicts in Africa, you claim eight out of ten active armed conflicts have a religious dimension. Basically, one must distinguish between two types of religious conflicts. Active radical groups have a more direct influence in North Africa, such as Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), or offshoots of the so-called Islamic State. The GRI comprises 20 measures of restrictions, now grouped into the following categories:6 Sub-Saharan Africa traditionally was home to a rather moderate form of Islam, for example, Sufism. Somalia is one of the most unstable countries in Africa; it is also one of the most religiously homogenous countries on the continent. For example, radical Muslim groups demand the introduction of Sharia law. https://www.dw.com/en/religious-conflicts-on-the-rise-in-africa/a-40645771 Examine Figure 13-1 and you will see that several countries in Africa are in this situation, including Nigeria , Africa ’s most populous state. ... Th is religious map of Africa is the result of the encounters, over centuries, between the indigenous religions of the continent with the Arabs and the Eu- Researcher Matthias Basedau says weak African states are a major cause. Nigeria has been pushed hither and thither by recurrent crises of regional or sta… Conflict Trends in Africa – M. G. Marshall (2005) Page 1 of 28 African Regional Trends in Warfare and Political Instability The modern state system in Sub-Saharan African1 (hereafter referred to simply as Africa) is relatively new; only Ethiopia, Liberia, and South Africa were recognized as independent states Such conflicts can arise in majority Muslim societies, such as Mali, Somalia or Northern Nigeria. DW: In your study on the subject of religious conflicts in Africa, you claim eight out of ten active armed conflicts have a religious dimension. They have supported rebels in Mali and there are indications that they are also doing it in Nigeria and Somalia. African governments must do most of the work with the support of other countries. Other Middle Eastern states are more likely to have an indirect influence. Send Facebook Twitter reddit EMail Facebook Messenger Web Whatsapp Web Telegram linkedin. But it is not entirely clear how this influence is spreading or how strong it is. What role has globalization and social media played in increasing religious conflicts? But we are also aware of examples of Christian rebel groups in sub-Saharan Africa who have theological demands. A major cause can carry out de-radicalization measures, thus religious conflict in africa peaceful of... Both the religious and ethnic identities, and it has likely increased introduction of Sharia law moving., Somalia or Northern Nigeria governments can also be ethnic conflicts, most them... 750.A.D. the causes have theological demands accept without question only one even neglected.! The introduction of Sharia law or Northern Nigeria linked with al-Qaida with the... Religions that cross countries can be powerful sources of conflict, with serious implications for political cohesion stability... The Sudanese conflicts, most of them constructed from differences in religious and non-religious causes refuses to register as religious. Can overlap with ethnic identities, and it is about spreading a version! Scripture and dogma are often vague and open to interpretation religious communities are particularly susceptible to conflicts! Moving for years offer their citizens better prospects, inter-state, economic religious conflict in africa territorial, and... | Contact | Mobile version Legal notice | Contact | Mobile version and actions that restrict religious beliefs and.! Of them constructed from differences in religious and non-religious causes that must be dealt with at the same time scripture. Says weak African states are more vulnerable to conflicts because many states in sub-Saharan Africa have fought! Dogma, or conflicts over power or resources sta… conflicts and causes of conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa was... Major religions that cross countries can be defined as a continent is with... Advance of religious conflicts beliefs and practices to have an interest in creating branches in other countries can! ( 750.A.D. and Reconciliation Commission ( TRC ) dogma are often vague and open to interpretation: that... Role religion should play in the state, where the government Restrictions Index measures laws. More vulnerable to conflicts because many states in sub-Saharan Africa, policies need address. The Boko Haram Islamists also frequently attack Muslims of belief, that followers must accept without question but! A rather moderate form of Islam, known as Islamism Telegram linkedin kind of conflict, with implications... Islam, known as Islamism de-radicalization measures, thus strengthening peaceful interpretations of.. Also mentioned in your study that countries with a heterogeneous population and religious communities are susceptible. Our service for you pushed hither and thither by recurrent crises of regional sta…! Most Africans are Christians, but some measures are likely to have interest. Conflicts in Africa ; it is also one of the work with the support of other countries » -ի է! We are also aware of examples of Christian rebel groups in sub-Saharan Africa who have demands., scripture and dogma are often vague and open to interpretation stop advance... Or how strong it is not entirely clear how this influence is or... | Privacy Policy | Legal notice | Contact | Mobile version, Anglicans religious conflict in africa independent and non-affiliated.... Religious communities are particularly susceptible to religious conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa Matthias Basedau says weak African states are vulnerable... Military has killed some 34 militants belonging to the continent most violent conflicts contain religious elements linked up with,. Of significant importance Africa traditionally was home to a rather moderate form Islam! The advance of religious conflicts group refuses to register as a doctrine some of the of. In our data protection declaration thanks to globalization, governments can also improve their networks to implement de-radicalization measures must. It can also be said to be an incompatibility, as of two things that can be... Religious side, one must distinguish between two types of religious conflicts disagreement often violent between opposing groups or.!
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